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作者:蕭煜倫
作者(外文):Yu-lun Hsiao
論文名稱:想像邊界:村上春樹與石黑一雄小說中的日本性
論文名稱(外文):Imagining the Contour: Japanese-ness in the Fiction of Haruki Murakami and Kazuo Ishiguro
指導教授:謝莉莉
指導教授(外文):Lili Hsieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學系
舊系所名稱:英美語文學研究所
學號:951202009
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:去畛域化日本性村上春樹石黑一雄憂鬱國族共同體認同情感全球化德勒茲
外文關鍵詞:deterritorializationJapanesenessHaruki MurakamiKazuo Ishiguromelancholiaaffectglobalizationimagined communityDeleuze
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摘要
身分認同問題一直以來都如影隨形地影響人們的生活。在當代全球化的民族國家架構下,對於自我的認知正經歷著一場劇烈的拉扯:一方面,人們的身分往往脫離不了國家的召喚;但另一方面,全球流通化的結果卻使得國家所保證的疆界確定性急速地分崩離析,使得人們無所適從而感到失落。有鑑於此,本論文將從小說的角度將研究範疇設定在日本這個國家以及展現在小說中的認同危機和轉機。此次文本的選擇為石黑一雄以日本二次戰後為背景的英文小說《群山淡景》(1982),以及村上春樹日文小說《發條鳥年代記》(1994-5)之英文翻譯本。乍看之下,此種選擇並不符合所謂「國家文學」所要求的純粹在地性,因為二者皆為一種「翻譯」的文學,所以無法完全傳達出日本內涵的初始意義;但另一方面正是由於他們曖昧不明的外在性故而顯現出了邊界建構中的政治性以及模糊地帶,以及舊認同模式中信仰的疆域統一性之不可能。與此同時,藉由德勒茲式的閱讀,此兩部作品也提供了我們另外一種「網狀根莖(rhizomatic)」式的想像可能性,即身分的認同從來都不會是完結的系統動作,而是不斷往不定(非)形構蛻變的一種過程。
然而,在進入德勒茲的積極哲學之時,文本的閱讀也提醒了我們在現實情況中尚無法被解決的情感結構問題,也因此本論文的後半部將重心放在涉及歷史厚度但往往被當作塵封過往的壓抑情感,企圖以佛洛伊德提出的憂鬱(melancholia)加以作政治性的解讀,來解釋存在於當代日本茫然若失的精神狀態,其實便是對於身分認同以及被沉默之歷史在連結上的失落。為了要治癒卅抵抗這樣的抑鬱狀態,就需要以新的方式重新與歷史產生關聯以避免重新製造優勢論述並壓抑弱勢,而生產於研究對象的兩本小說中之「不準確」甚至虛構的歷史則正好提供了我們一種進入歷史的方式,亦即將歷史視為一種指向力而非已然拍板定案的事實描述。透過這種方式,我期待最終依然能夠創造出一種群體的歸屬感,但同時也明白這種創建的政治性,依然有賴不斷的努力修正以達到更好的境況。
Abstract
Identity problems have always been beleaguering people. In the present mainstream configuration of the Nation State, it is facing a predicament: on the one hand, it is tied with the conception of nationhood; on the other, the promise of a national identity is being tattered by globalization and leaves people in the state of uncertainty. Concerning this, the present study intends to examine the identity crisis in fictional literature, as it is often adopted or interpreted as a representation of the spirit of a nation. My targets of research focus on Kazuo Ishiguro’s Japanese setting English novel, A Pale View of Hills (1982), and the English translation of Haruki Murakami’s Japanese work, The wind-up Bird Chronicle (1994-5). Although such choices do not accord to the “standard” of national literature, which demands the fulfillment of pure nativism, it is exactly their outside-ness that would help to demystify the notion of national literature and provide another possibility for thinking about national boundary. Following a Deleuzian philosophy, it would be argued that the identification and sense of belonging would always be an ongoing process instead of a fixed solution for its rhizomatic quality.
In the meantime, although national boundary is no longer reliable, it is still one of the key factors in people’s conceptual frame of self-recognition and therefore should not be disposed at this stage. The confidence of the certainty about a clear-cut contour, now shattered, has turned into an emotional symptom of melancholia. As a result, the second part of this paper would dedicate to engaging this Freudian psychoanalytic entity in a political way to interpret the failed promise of identity as the loss of the loved object and propose a resistance to the naïve dream of returning to the origin for a more productive identity making, which does not treat the past as a fixed reference but a part of its continuing interaction with the present, to come. In the end, it is still possible to form a sense of belonging, but only achieved by incessant revision with the acknowledgement of the impossibility of accounting the historical totality, instead of the recourse to reterritorialization.
Abstract…………………………………………………………….…………….i
Chinese Abstract……………………………………………………..……..……iii
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………..…………..iv
Chapter One: Introduction……………………………………………………….1
Chapter Two: Toward a Borderless Nationality…………………………………18
Chapter Three: Affect of Another Nostalgia…………………………………….49
Chapter Four: Conclusion……………………………………………………….72
Works Cited………………………………………………………………………76
Works Cited
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Brown, Wendy. “Resisting Left Melancholia.” Loss. Eds. David and David Kazanjian Eng. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. 458-65.
Cumings, Bruce. Parallax Visions: Making Sense of American-East Asian Relations at the End of the Century. Durham, London: Duke UP, 1999.
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Eng, David and David Kazanjian. Introduction. “Mourning Remains”. David Eng and David Kazanjian. 1-25.
Freud, Sigmund. “Mourning and Melancholia.” Trans. James Strachey. S.E. Ed. James Strachey. Vol. XIV. London: The Hogarth Press, 1917 [1915]. 237-59. 1991.
Iida, Yumiko. Rethinking Identity in Modern Japan. Abindon and New York: Routledge, 2002.
Ishiguro, Kazuo. Interview with Maya Jaggi. Writing across Worlds: Contemporary Writers Talk. Ed. Susheila Nasta. London and New York: Routledge, 2004. 159-70.
---. A Pale View of Hills. London: Faber & Faber, 1982.
Lo, Kwai-Cheung. “Return to What One Imagines to Be There: Masculinity and Racial Otherness in Jaruki Murakami''s Writings About China.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction 37.3 (2004): 258-76.
Miyoshi, Masao. “A Borderless World? From Colonialism to Transnaitonalism and the Decline of the Nation-State.” Asian American Studies: A Reader. Eds. Min Song and Jean Yu-wen Shen Wu. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000. 209-31.
Murakami, Haruki. The Wind-up Bird Chronicle. London: Vintage Books, 2003.
Sakai, Naoki. Translation and Subjectivity. Minneapolis: U Minnesota P, 1997.
Sim, Wai-chew. Globalization and Dislocation in the Novels of Kazuo Ishiguro. Queenston: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.
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Strecher, Matthew. Dances with the Sheep: The Quest for Identity in the Fiction of Murakami Haruki. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, Michigan UP, 2002.
Strecher, Matthew. Haruki Murakami''s the Wind-up Bird Chronicle: A Reader''s Guide. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002.
Vees-Gulani, Susanne. Trauma and Guilt: Literature of Wartime Bombing in Germany. Berlin and New York: W. de Gruyter, 2003.
White, Hayden. “The Fictions of Factual Representation.” Tropics of Discourse. Baltimore: John Hopkins U.P, 1978. 121-34.
Wroe, Nicholas. “Living Memories.” The Guardian 19 February 2005 2005: 20. < http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2005/feb/19/fiction.kazuoishiguro>
張小虹。 《假全球化》。 臺北市:聯合文學,2007。
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