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作者:張函婷
作者(外文):Han-Ting Chang
論文名稱:重寫女性歌德: 童妮.摩里森《摯愛》中母性與女性的「厚愛」
論文名稱(外文):A Rewriting of Feminine Gothic: The “Thick Love” of Motherhood and Womanhood in Toni Morrison’s Beloved
指導教授:白瑞梅
指導教授(外文):Amie Parry
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學系
舊系所名稱:英美語文學研究所
學號:951202002
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:奴隸制度女性歌德《摯愛》身體言說迴卅憶
外文關鍵詞:slaveryBelovedbody speechSusanne Beckerrememoryfeminine gothic
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本論文討論的是童妮.摩里森《摯愛》一書中歌德文體的呈現,藉由蘇珊.貝克的《女性小說中的歌德形式》對於女性歌德的解釋作為對照與依據,探討《摯愛》被閱讀成女性歌德文體的可能與意義,甚至是重新書寫。通常將《摯愛》閱讀為歌德文類者,是因為書中含有鬼魅的架構,然而,我希望從貝克所理解的女性歌德觀點出發,探討摩里森的寫作方式以及《摯愛》中角色的安排與刻畫如何構成歌德文體。我希望將《摯愛》中鬼魅的架構理解為摩里森藉以吸引讀者入其所闢的未知領域,而在這未知領域中讀者將見到摩里森重現奴隸制度的創傷與記憶,而非單純以為少數族群發聲的立場去重新定義奴隸制度。摩里森在文中的敘述大量運用艾諾.溫斯坦所稱的「身體言說」來重現奴隸經驗的痛楚與創傷記憶,摩里森稱之為「迴卅憶」,而這樣形式上與內容上所呈現的歌德形式與文體都是混亂而無秩序的。讀者因此有可能在閱讀過程中失去頭緒與方向,而這樣的閱讀經驗與貝克所認為歌德小說應有的影響相符。因此,我將從幾個不同的角度與觀點切入來閱讀《摯愛》,從作者寫作的架構到角色的形塑,來探討歌德文體如何被呈現。我希望能夠藉此敞開閱讀《摯愛》新的一扇門,重新審思摩里森文中的「迴卅憶」。
This thesis will discuss the gothic forms in Toni Morrison''s Beloved (1987), using Susanne Becker''s argument in her Gothic Forms of Feminine Fictions as a contrast and parallel, to show how Beloved is a rewriting of feminine gothic and what significance it would make to apply such reading to Beloved. While the ghostly plot in Beloved would be the major cue to a gothic reading, I would like to focus on Morrison''s writing style and her character design to provide an alternative thinking which derives from Becker''s notion of feminine gothic. I attempt to show Morrison''s use of a ghostly plot as a means to enthrall the readers into a foreign world of what she intends to unfold about slavery instead of re/defining it as representing the oppressed voice. With the large use of what Arnold Weinstein notes as “body speech” in narration, Morrison reproduces the pain and traumatic memory, "rememory" in Morrison''s word, of a slave''s life through gothic forms either formally or contextually that are chaotic and disordered. The chances of getting lost during the reading due to such narration style resembles a gothic reading experience what Susanne Becker sees as one of the key components of a gothic novel. Therefore, I will go through several different layers based on Becker''s definition of feminine gothic to present the gothic aesthetic of Beloved from the writing construction to the molding of a character''s (gothic) role and its significance. By this, I hope to shed a new light to the reading of Beloved that draws the readers closer to Morrison''s "rememory".
Table of Contents
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………..i
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………………....ii
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………..iii
Chapter One: Introduction……………………………………………………….1
Chapter Two: The Gothic Heroine in Beloved:
Denver’s Story………………………………………………....18
Chapter Three: Nurturing the Gothic Family Tree with Gothic Love…………..44
Chapter Four: Conclusion…………………………………………….................65
Works Cited……………………………………………………………………..69
Becker, Susanne. Gothic Forms of Feminine Fictions. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999.
Belsey, Catherine. Critical Practice. London and New York: Routledge, 1980.
Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre: An Autobiography. New York: New American Library, 1847.
Cixous, Hélène. “The Laugh of the Medusa.” Feminism: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism. Ed. Robyn R. Warhol and Diane Price Herndl. New Jersey: Rutgers, The State University, 1997. 334-349.
Gilbert, Sandra. “Plain Jane’s Progress.” Signs 2:4. 1976.
Gilbert, Sandra and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. New Haven, CT and Lodon: Yale University Press, 1979.
Goldstein, Philip. “Black Feminism and The Canon: Faulkner’s Absalom! Absalom! and Morrison’s Beloved as Gothic Romance.” The Faulkner Journal. Orlando: University of Central Florida, 2004. 133-147.
Gordon, Avery F.. “Not Only the Footprints but the Water Too and What is down There.” Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990.
Harris, Trudier. “Beloved: ‘Woman, Thy Name Is Demon.’” Critical Essays on Toni Morrison’s Beloved. Ed. Barbara H. Solomon. New York: G. K. Hall &
Co., 1998. 127-37.
Kristeva, Julia. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection, trans. Leon S. Rouiez, New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.
Morrison, Toni. Beloved. London: Vintage, 2004.
New, Williams H.. Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002.
Radcliffe, Ann. The Mysteries of Udolpho. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1794.
Van Leeuwen, Fredericke. “Female Gothic: The Discourse of the Other.” Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 14. Universidad de La Laguna, 1982. 33-44.
Weinstein, Arnold. “Dis-Membering and Re-Membering in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.” Nobody’s Home: Speech, Self, and Place in American Fiction from Hawthorne to DeLillo. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
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