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作者:謝和親
作者(外文):Ho-chin Hsieh
論文名稱:愛默生對自然與社會之超越觀
論文名稱(外文):Emerson''s Transcendental Vision of Nature and Society
指導教授:郭章瑞
指導教授(外文):Chang-jui Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學系
舊系所名稱:英美語文學研究所
學號:93122012
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:社會個人自然19世紀之美國社會愛默生超越主義
外文關鍵詞:Transcendentalismnaturesocietyindividual19th-century American societyEmerson
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在不少讀者的印象中,超越主義者忽略現實生活,只著重精神生活。身為領導人的瑞夫‧沃爾多‧愛默生,更往往被描繪為只強調精神生活而脫離世俗世界的作家。然而,他的學說不只局限於探討人與自然的關係,事實上,他對人與社會的觀點也是非常值得探討的。
愛默生認為,社會的改善端賴素質良好的個人,而個人的培養建立於其與大自然和社會的接觸。有鑑於此,為了讓讀者從一個更寬廣的角度閱讀愛默生,此篇論文將探討他對自然、社會與個人之觀點,並藉由研究他與十九世紀美國社會的聯繫,使讀者更深入了解他的思想與生活。
第一章介紹十九世紀美國政治、宗教與奴隸制度的發展,並探討這些社會現象如何促使愛默生與其他超越主義者強調個人的重要性。有鑑於個人的革新牽動著社會的革新,第二章先行討論愛默生對個人主義的看法後,進而探究個人如何在自然中培養自我。然而,愛默生認為自然不是個人培養自我的唯一途徑,社會在其自我革新中亦扮演著重要的角色。是故,第三章分析個人與社會的關係,並提出其互動的三種模式:消極、穩定與積極,並且分析在不同模式中,個人如何培養自己與回饋社會。此外,為了印證愛默生不只是一位思想家,也是一位行動者,本章也將從歷史角度切入,審視愛默生如何在十九世紀的美國社會中力行他的理念。
在探討愛默生對十九世紀美國社會的觀感與行動後,第四章著重於他人對愛默生的回應。本章主要從三個角度探討愛默生之思想與行動對旁人與後世之影響:奴隸制度、政治情況與生活哲學。最後一章為結論,除再次強調自然與社會對個人成長的重要性之外,亦著墨愛默生與其他超越主義者的思想與行動。愛默生藉由公開的演說,連結思想與行動,不僅是思想家,也是實踐家。本論文將藉由探討愛默生的思想與行動,引領讀者從更寬廣的角度了解其哲學世界與生活實踐。
The Transcendentalists are often defined as a group of people in the nineteenth century who were obsessed with the natural world and indulged themselves in spiritual life, regardless of real life. As a leader of Transcendentalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson used to be portrayed as a spiritual man who always emphasizes spiritual life and the relationship between man and nature. Some people even regard him as a remote figure, who appears to be isolated and always detaches himself from the mundane world.
It is a pity, however, if we interpret Emerson’s thoughts merely as advocating the importance of nature; in fact, the relationship between the individual and society is also worth an investigation. In his opinion, the amelioration of society depends so much on well-cultivated individuals that the cultivation of them, which can only be completed by both immerging themselves in nature and contacting society, becomes very important. Thus, to show Emerson as a man with broad perspectives, this thesis aims to study his vision on both nature and society as well as his connection with nineteenth-century American society.
Chapter one introduces the social phenomena of nineteenth century America and investigates how these, especially politics, religion and slavery, motivated Emerson and other Transcendentalists to emphasize the importance of the individual. As the reform of the individual plays an important role in the reform of the society, chapter two discusses not only Emerson’s view on the individual but also the cultivation of them through interaction with nature; however, the cultivation of the individual cannot be completed only by means of that interaction. Chapter three, therefore, presents the significance of society in the cultivation of the individual. It points out three possible situations concerning the interaction between the individual and society, passive, static and active, in which the individual cultivates himself in different ways and makes different contributions to society. Moreover, in order to demonstrate Emerson as not only a thinker but also a doer, this chapter, by putting Emerson in a historical context, also investigates his acting out his ideas in nineteenth-century American society.
Chapter four discusses how the society reacts to his thoughts and practice, that is, how Emerson influences his contemporaries and later generations. His influences are examined from three angles: slavery, politics and philosophy of life. The concluding chapter reemphasizes the importance of both nature and society in the cultivation of the individual and tackles the issue of thinking and action in the Transcendentalists. Emerson works out his own way of linking his vision and action through public lectures. By reading Emerson as both a thinker and a doer, this thesis hopes to uncover his transcendental vision and practical life.
Chapter One
Introduction………………………………………………………1
Chapter Two
The Significance and Cultivation of the Individual…………………10
Chapter Three
Emerson’s Concerns with Society………………………………24
Chapter Four
The Emersonian Effects…………………………………………57
Chapter Five
Conclusion………………………………………………………74
Works Cited………………………………………………………81
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