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作者:秦詩怡
作者(外文):Shih-I Chin
論文名稱:享樂與現實之間:李小龍功夫電影中的幻想
論文名稱(外文):Between Pleasure and Reality:Fantasy/Phantasy in Bruce Lee''s Kung Fu Movies
指導教授:易鵬
指導教授(外文):Yi-Peng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學系
舊系所名稱:英美語文學研究所
學號:92122015
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:李小龍幻想截拳道影像認同理想化自我凝視
外文關鍵詞:Bruce Leeidealizationgazeidentificationfantasy (phantasy)Jeet Kune Doegoimage
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本篇論文處理的主題是武打明星李小龍的功夫片當中的幻想議題。文章討論的重點選擇著於重功夫片最重要的元素,也就是李小龍的「功夫」--截拳道。我將會探討李小龍的功夫電影、他所創造的表演藝術,以及他在電影中的理想形象,是如何地和心理分析中幻想此一概念相互交織的關係。
首先在第一章中,我將會援引心理分析法國學派--尚‧拉普朗虛(Jean Laplanche)以及尚-柏騰‧彭大歷斯(J.B. Pontalis)為代表--以及英倫學派--蘇珊‧艾薩克斯(Susan Isaacs)以及漢娜‧西格爾(Hanna Segal)--對於幻想此一概念的理論發展,以幫助理解「功夫」何以作為一種幻想的表現。因此我在本章當中的主要論點為,在電影幻想之下存在著另一種形式的幻想,也就是李小龍所創造出來的功夫幻想。
在第二章中,我將接著介紹李小龍個人對於他的創作,也就是截拳道,所提出來的哲學性注釋,或者可以說是截拳道教義。透過他對於截拳道的詮釋,我們能更進一步窺視功夫幻想的可能內涵為何。經由觀察發現,隱藏在功夫幻想中的內容是與自我(創作者的自我以及觀眾的自我)形成的過程緊密相關。因此,卡佳‧絲爾薇曼(Kaja Silverman)在The Threshold of the Visible World 一書當中所提出的視覺理論,可以幫助我們釐清此處關於身體內在固有感受以及凝視作用如何交織影響自我的形成。我在本章的論點是:當李小龍沉浸在截拳道的幻想時,他感受到一種超越文化印記的自我。然而,這種截拳道所帶來的內在固有感受所形成的自我卻仍受限於觀眾的凝視。觀眾的凝視成就了李小龍的另一種自我--一種扭曲重寫文化刻版印象的自我。截拳道以及觀眾的凝視透露出兩種不同的幻想願望。
在第三章中,我會接續第二章裡自我形成的討論,並試著連結觀眾所經驗到的「理想化」、「認同」、以及「幻想」三個重要概念。同樣地,卡佳‧絲爾薇曼的著作將會是本章的理論依據。我在此章的論點是:李小龍功夫電影的觀眾產生的認同既是異種認同也是原發認同。因為觀眾認同了電影中理想化的形象,同時,也因為截拳道的可觸及性,產生了原發性的認同。因此,我主張截拳道不僅僅表達了幻想,更代表一種為了達成幻想願望所做的試探或努力。正如漢娜‧西格爾對於藝術創作的闡釋,截拳道同樣搭起了與客觀現實之間的連結。然而這樣的試探,似乎無法將主體引進真正的對象關係的世界裡。所以在本章的末尾,我將呈現周星馳的喜劇電影,並探討電影中的詼諧對話如何取代了功夫元素,讓觀眾藉之進入客觀現實世界。
This thesis aims to deal with Bruce Lee’s kung fu movies with regard to the fantasy/phantasy expressed in it. In this thesis, the conventionally emphasized movie scenarios will be less discussed, instead, attention will be paid to the essential element of this type of movie, that is, Bruce Lee’s kung fu, Jeet Kune Do. I would examine how Bruce Lee’s kung fu movies, his performing art (JKD), and his cinematic image are connected to the psychoanalytic concept of fantasy/phantasy.
In the first chapter, I would start by drawing on the theoretic concept of fantasy/phantasy elaborated by two antithetic schools, one represented by Jean Laplanche and J.B. Pontalis, and the other by Susan Isaacs and Hanna Segal. I will demonstrate what each sect’s theoretical contention has to contribute to our understanding of kung fu as a type of fantasy/phantasy. My argument in this part is that kung fu, the performing art acted out by Bruce Lee, stands for another embedded fantasy/phantasy within the cinematic fantasy/phantasy.
In the second chapter, I will go on to introduce Bruce Lee’s personal philosophical annotation on his artistic creation, JKD. His annotation or we could call it doctrine provides enlightening perspective for us to better understand the content of fantasy/phantasy revealed through these bodily movements. It turns out that its hidden content is closely related to the formation of the ego, the ego of the artist (Bruce Lee) and the ego of the spectators. Therefore the theory of the vision developed in Kaja Silverman’s The Threshold of the Visible World would be very helpful for our purpose of clarifying how proprioception and the mechanism of gaze are interwoven. My argument here is that in creating and performing JKD movements, that is, when immersed in his JKD fantasy/phantasy, Bruce Lee (as he claimed) has attained/ felt a triumphal proprioceptive ego which is free from culture markings. However, I would also say that this triumphal proprioceptive ego remains constrained under the spectator’s gaze which is the ultimately factor that determines the contour of his image. The gaze pins him up as another ideal image which is not free from cultural markings but distorts stereotypical cultural markings. Both JKD the performing art and spectatorial gaze indicate two different fantastic/phantastic wishes.
In the third chapter, I would continue with the issue of ego formation and try to connect the relationship among idealization, identification and fantasy/phantasy that is experienced by Lee’s audience. Again, Kaja Silverman’s The Threshold of the Visible World will be the main theoretical source I resort to. My argument on this part is that Lee’s audience identify both heteropathicly and idiopathicly: heteropath because succumbed to the bodily ideality of Lee, idiopathic because the accessibility to learning JKD. Therefore I would say that JKD is more than an expression of fantasy/phantasy but also an effort to attain that fantasy/phantasy. It is, as Hanna Segal has expounded, an artistic work that connects to the objective reality. However, such an effort remains futile for it still restrains the one who identifies through it (idiopathic identification) distant from the world of symbolic. At the end of this chapter, therefore, I would present Stephen Chow’s comedies whose funny language (jokes) replaces JKD for audience to cling to and thereby get closer to the world of objects.
Abstracti
Acknowledgement....................................vi
List of Figures....................................viii
Introduction.......................................1
Chapter One: Fantasy and Phantasy..................12
Chapter Two: The Tao and Image of Bruce Lee........37
Chapter Three: Adaptation..........................55
Conclusion: It’s always in Between................79
Works Cited........................................82
Abrams, M. H. The Glossary of Literary Terms 7th Edition. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Collage Publishers, 1993.
Anderson, Aaron. “Action in Motion: Kinesthesia in Martial Arts Films.” Jump Cut No.42. 1-11.
Cowie, Elizabeth. “Fantasia.” The Women in Question. Ed. Parveen Adams and Elizabeth Cowie. Cambridge: The MIP Press, 1990. 149-195.
Crossley, Robert. “Education and Fantasy.” College English 37.3 (1975): 281-293.
Desser, David. “The Kung Fu Craze: Hong Kong Cinema’s First American Reception.” The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Eds. Fu Poshek and David Desser. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000. 19-43.
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Doane, Mary Ann. “Sublimation and the Psychoanalysis of the Aesthetic.” Femmes Fatales: Feminism, Film Theory, Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge, 1991. 249-267.
Donald, James. “Introduction.” Fantasy and the Cinema. Ed. James Donald. London: British Film Institute, 1989.
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Henning, Stanley E. “The Chinese Martial Arts in Historical Perspective.” Military Affairs. 45.4 (1981). 173-178.
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Keith-Spiegel, Patricia. “Early Conception of Humor: Varieties and Issues.” The Psychology of Humor: Theoretical Perspective and Empirical Issues. Ed. Jeffrey H. Goldstein& Paul E. McGhee. New York: Academic Press Inc. 4-34.
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Lee, Bruce. Jeet Kune Do: Bruce Lee’s Commentaries on the Martial Way Vol. 3. Comp. and ed. John Little. Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 1997.
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Internet Sources
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DVD
Bruce Lee’s Jeet Kune Do. Perf. Bruce Lee and Danny Inosanto. Rontm Multimedia Co. 2003.
中文資料
周星馳的fan屎,《我愛周星馳/Stephen Chow》,2004年12月。
Filmography
◎Bruce Lee’s Movies
Big Boss. 《唐山大兄》 Dir. Lo Wei, 1971. aka, Fist of Fury.
Fist of Fury. 《精武門》 Dir. Lo Wei, 1972. aka, The Chinese Connection.
Way of the Dragon. 《猛龍過江》 Dir. Bruce Lee, 1972. aka, Return of the
Dragon
Enter the Dragon. 《龍爭虎鬥》 Dir. Robert Clause, 1973. aka
Game of Death. 《死亡遊戲》Dir. Robert Clouse, 1974.
◎Stephen Chow’s Movies
Fist of Fury 1991 Ⅱ. 《摩登武聖》. Dir. Chung-Sing Choh and Corey Yuen,
1992.
Flirting Scholar. 《唐伯虎點秋香》. Dir. Lee Lik-Chi, 1993.
Chinese Odyssey Part Two: Cinderella. 《齊天大聖西遊記》. Dir. Liu
Zhenwei, 1995.
The Cookery God. 《食神》. Dir. Stephen Chow, 1996.
Shaolin Soccer. 《少林足球》. Dir. Stephen Chow, 2001.
◎Others
Kung Fu Mahjon. Dir. Jing Wong, 2005.
Kill Bill Ⅰ. Dir. Quentin Tarantino, 2002.
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