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作者:蔡國成
作者(外文):Kuo-Cheng Tsai
論文名稱:運動同志與同志運動:台灣男女同志運動團體的興起
論文名稱(外文):Sporting Gays and the Gay Movement: The Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Sports Groups in Taiwan
指導教授:白瑞梅
指導教授(外文):Amie Parry
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學系
舊系所名稱:英美語文學研究所
學號:89122003
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:性別政治身體政治同志運動同志運動團體認同政治
外文關鍵詞:body politicsgay/lesbian sports groupsgay/lesbian sportsidentity politicsgender politics
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本篇論文旨在探討1990年代末期之後,臺灣男女同志運動團體(gay/lesbian sports groups)興起的歷史文化背景及其相關的身體政治、性別政治等議題。本篇論文從探討中文裡「同志運動」一辭的字義開始。「同志運動」向來是形容同志參與社會平權運動(gay movement)而非身體、體育相關的運動(sports)。仔細推敲下,台灣男女同志運動團體缺乏學術關注及研究的原因可能是因為一般觀念認為運動不是嚴肅具有政治性的活動。同時身為同志運動員和研究者,筆者試圖替男女同志運動團體的「政治性」翻案,從2001年彩虹運動會暨雷斯盃、2002年雪梨同志世運會、2003同志遊行,都可以看到男女同志運動員參與同志運動(gay movement)的足跡。
除了證明運動同志與同志運動之間的關係外,本篇論文將試圖勾勒同志運動員的身體、性別、認同政治。這些不同的層面和以往現代運動(modern sport)所注重的疆界分野時而相背時而相符。相背的地方,比方現代運動嚴格區分生理性別、心理性別、性傾向、種族及國家而同志運動(gay/lesbian sports)並未嚴格區分。相符之處,比方同志運動團體有時也替性別表現設限,如什麼是可接受的女性化或男性化行為等等。藉著閱讀分析這些身體、性別和認同政治,筆者冀望展現同志運動的複雜性。最後,筆者也將論證男女同志內在的身體、性別和認同政治如何具有表演性(performativity),如何可以被視為不同「做」同志運動(gay movement)的方式。
In this thesis I am going to explore the historical and cultural background of the emergence of the gay/lesbian sports groups in Taiwan along with relevant body politics and gender politics of the participants since late 1990s. The thesis begins with the etymology of the Chinese term “tongzhi yundong,” which has mostly referred to the gay movement not physical sports. The trivialization of gay/lesbian athletics is related with the general conceptions that “sports” is not serious and apolitical. As both a participant and a researcher, I would like to give counterarguments by giving evidences that gay/lesbian athletes do involve themselves in the gay movement such as participating in the Rainbow Games and Lesbian Championship in 2001, the Sydney Gay Games in 2002, and the gay march in 2003.
In addition to demonstrate the correlations between sporting gays and the gay movement, this thesis also aims to delineate the unique body politics, gender politics and identity politics that characterize gay/lesbian athletes. These various politics in some ways challenge the boundary projects that are often affiliated with modern sport, such as policed differentiation of sex, gender, sexuality, race, and nationality etc. Sometimes these politics conform to the heteronormative maintenance of norms, including acceptable masculinity and femininity etc. By reading and interpreting these politics, the researcher wants to demonstrate the complexity of gay/lesbian athletics. Last but not least, the researcher will try to disclose the interior performativity of the gay/lesbian athletes and manifest how the body politics, gender politics and the identity politics can be recognized as different forms of doing the gay movement.
Table of Contents
Introduction
A New Kind of Tongzhi Yundong.....................................1
Review of Literature..............................................7
Methodology and Data Collection...................................9
The Researcher...................................................17
Thesis Organization..............................................18
Chapter One
Sport as a Boundary Project......................................23
The Boundary Project of Gender..............................24
The Boundary Project of Sexualities.........................28
The Boundary Project of National Identity...................31
The Boundary Project of Race................................33
The Boundary Project of Health..............................34
Chapter Two
Emergence of Gay Sports Groups...................................35
Five Dimensions of Gay Sports Groups.............................41
Structure...................................................43
Spatiality..................................................46
Temporality.................................................52 Experience..................................................53
Function....................................................57
Chapter Three
Body Politics....................................................61
Gender Politics..................................................68
Chapter Four
Sporting Gays and the Gay Movement...............................82
Rainbow Games and Lesbian Championship...........................84
Gay Games........................................................89
Gay March........................................................97
Conclusion......................................................102
Appendices
Appendix 1 Pinyin Glossary in Alphabetical Order................103
Appendix 2 Information of Gay and Lesbian Sports Groups in Taipei
Metropolis......................................................105
Appendix 3 Sample of Survey Questions...........................108
Appendix 4 Statistics of Survey.................................112
Appendix 5 List of Interviewees.................................125
Appendix 6 List of Survey Informants............................126
Appendix 7 Feedback from an Observer............................131
Bibliography.........................................................134
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