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作者:陳源材
作者(外文):Yuan-tsai Chen
論文名稱:智鬥電影審查制度:威瑪德國酷兒電影之風格典範、拍攝技巧及敘事策略
論文名稱(外文):Outwitting Censorship: Stylistic Paradigms, Cinematic Techniques and Narrative Strategies of Weimar Queer Cinema
指導教授:李振亞
指導教授(外文):Zhen-ya Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學系
學號:971202005
出版年:103
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:威瑪電影酷兒電影穆瑙恐怖電影女同志電影電影審查制度
外文關鍵詞:Weimar Cinemaqueer cinemaF.W. Murnauhorror filmlesbian filmfilm censorship
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世界上第一部男同志電影《與眾不同》(李查歐斯沃德,1919)與第一部以女同志為主題的電影《穿制服的女孩》(李歐蒂妮莎岡,1931)皆誕生於1919至1933年威瑪共和時期的德國,因此威瑪影業開創了「同志電影」這個子文類,並豐富了「酷兒電影」這個大文類。本文介紹威瑪酷兒電影的四種風格典範與各類拍攝技巧與敘事策略。經由「從無聲到有聲」、「從無審(電影審查制度)到有審」,以及「從有字(標題字幕)到無字」等多個面向出發,本研究剖析威瑪男、女同志電影、恐怖電影以及同志導演穆瑙所執導的電影,闡述威瑪酷兒電影在形式風格、拍攝技巧與敘事策略上如何轉變、運用與發展以智鬥電影審查制度、承繼威瑪同志社會運動的使命、對抗德國保守勢力在政治、法律及宗教上對同志的壓迫,與創造威瑪電影藝術的新高峰。
The first gay film in the world, Different from the Others (Richard Oswald, 1919) and the first film adopting lesbianism as the main theme, Girls in Uniform (Leontine Sagan, 1931), were both born in the Weimar Republic of Germany from 1919 to 1933. Thus, Weimar Cinema invented the subgenres of “gay film” and "lesbian film," enriching the main genre of “queer cinema.” This paper introduces the four paradigms, various cinematic techniques and narrative strategies of Weimar Queer Cinema. Through the aspects: “from silent films to talkies,” “from the censorship-free status to the dominance of film censorship,” and “from films with inter-titles to films without inter-titles” and so on, this paper analyzes Weimar gay, lesbian and horror films as well as the films directed by F. W. Murnau. Furthermore, this paper illustrates how the paradigms, techniques and strategies of Weimar Queer Cinema were transformed to outwit Weimar censorship, to inherit the mission of the Weimar queer social movement, to fight against German conservative power’s political, juridical, and religious oppressions over the homosexuals, and to create a new artistic peak of Weimar Cinema.
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iii
Contents v
List of Figures vi
Chapter One Introduction 1
Chapter Two Paradigm One: The First Gay Film—Frank Gayness, and Paradigm Two: Horror Films—Pathetic, Sympathetic and Concealed Queer Identities 7
Chapter Three Paradigm Three: F. W. Murnau's Films—Queerness in Disguise 17
Chapter Four Paradigm Four: Lesbian Films—Fearless Rebellion against Patriarchy, Fascism and Militarism 36
Chapter Five Conclusion 48
Bibliography 54
Filmography
City Girl. Dir. F. W. Murnau. Perf. Charles Farrell, Mary Duncan, and David Torrence. Fox Film Corporation, 1930. Film.
Different from the Others. Dir. Richard Oswald. Perf. Conrad Veidt, Franz Bollek, and Magnus Hirschfeld. Richard-Oswald-Produktion, 1919. Film.
Faust. Dir. F. W. Murnau. Perf. Gösta Ekman, Emil Jannings, and Camilla Horn. Universum Film, 1926. Film.
Girls in Uniform. Dir. Leontine Sagan and Carl Froelich. Perf. Dorothea Wieck, Hertha Thiele, and Emilia Unda. Deutsche Film-Gemeinschaft, 1931. Film.
Hamlet. Dir. Svend Gade and Heinz Schall. Perf. Asta Nielsen, Paul Conradi, and Mathilde. Brandt. Art-Film GmbH, 1921. Film.
Nosferatu. Dir. F. W. Murnau. Perf. Max Schreck, Greta Schröder, and Ruth Landshoff. Jofa-Atelier Berlin-Johannisthal and Prana-Film GmbH, 1922. Film.
Pandora's Box. Dir. Georg Wilhelm Pabst. Perf. Louise Brooks, Fritz Kortner, and Francis Lederer. Nero-Film AG, 1929. Film.
Sunrise. Dir. F. W. Murnau. Perf. George O'Brien, Janet Gaynor, and Margaret Livingston. Fox Film Corporation, 1927. Film.
Tabu. Dir. F. W. Murnau. Anne Chevalier, Matahi, and Hitu. Murnau-Flaherty Productions, 1931. Film.
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. Dir. Robert Wiene. Perf. Werner Krauss, Conrad Veidt, and Friedrich Feher. Decla-Bioscop AG, 1920. Film.
The Last Laugh. Dir. F. W. Murnau. Perf. Emil Jannings, Maly Delschaft, and Max Hiller. Universum Film, 1924. Film.

In Chinese
Liang, Liang 梁良. The Films Which Could Not Be Seen: Grand Introduction of Banned Films in One Hundred Years (Kanbudao De Dianying: Bainian Jinpian Daguan 看不到的電影:百年禁片大觀). Taipei: Taipei Times Publishing Company, 2004. Print.

In English
Benshoff, Harry M. Monsters in the Closet: Homosexuality and the Horror Film. Manchester and New York: Manchester UP, 1997. Print.
-----. “The Monster and the Homosexual.” Queer Cinema: The Film Reader. Ed. Sean Griffin. New York: Routledge, 2004. 63-74. Print.
Bergstrom, Janet. “Sexuality at a Loss: The Films of F.W. Murnau.” Poetics Today 6.1/2 (1985): 185-203. Print.
Danks, Adrian. “Reaching beyond the Frame: Murnau’s City Girl.” Senses of Cinema. N.p., Dec. 2003. Web. 12 Jan. 2011.
<http://www.sensesofcinema.com/2003/cteq/city_girl/>.
Dyer, Richard. “Less and More than Women and Men: Lesbian and Gay Cinema in Weimar Germany.” New German Critique 51 (1990): 5-60. Print.
Elsaesser, Thomas. “No End to Nosferatu (1922).” Weimar Cinema: An Essential Guide to Classic Films of the Era. Ed. Noah Isenberg. New York: Columbia UP, 2009, 79-94. Print.
-----. Weimar Cinema and after: Germany’s Historical Imaginary. New York: Routledge, 2000. Print.
Fout, John C. “Sexual Politics in Wilhelmine Germany: The Male Gender Crisis, Moral Purity, and Homophobia.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 2.3 (1992): 388-421. Print.
Garber, Marjorie. Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety. New York: Routledge, 1992. Print.
Ginn, H. Lucas. “Gay Culture Flourished In Pre-Nazi Germany.” Queer Resources Directory. N.p., 12 Oct. 1995. Web. 23 May 2011. <http://www.qrd.org/qrd/culture/1995/gay.culture.flourished.prenazi.germany-10.95>.
Hadleigh, Boze. The Lavender Screen. New York: Carol Publishing Group, 1993. Print.
Hake, Sabine. “Who Gets the Last Laugh? Old Age and Generational Change in F. W. Murnau’s The last Laugh (1924).” Weimar Cinema: An Essential Guide to Classic Films of the Era. Ed. Noah Isenberg. New York: Columbia UP, 2009, 115-33. Print.
Isenberg, Noah W., ed. Weimar Cinema: An Essential Guide to Classic Films of the Era. New York: Columbia UP, 2009. Print.
Jelavich, Peter. Berlin Alexanderplatz: Radio, Film and the Death of Weimar Culture. London: University of California, 2006. Print.
Kaczorowsky, Craig. "Paragraph 175." glbtq.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/paragraph_175.html>.
Kennedy, Hubert. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, Pioneer of the Modern Gay Movement. San Francisco: Peremptory Publications, 2002. Print.
Kiss, Robert J. “Queer Tradition in German Cinema.” The German Cinema Book. Ed. Tim Bergfelder et al. London: British Film Institute, 2002, 48-56. Print.
Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton UP, 2004. Print.
Kuzniar, Alice A. The Queer German Cinema. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000. Print.
Loiperdinger, Martin. “State Legislation, Censorship and Funding.” The German Cinema Book. Ed. Tim Bergfelder et al. London: British Film Institute, 2002, 148-57. Print.
Maguire, Frank. "Homosexuals and Weimar Germany." RenewAmerica. N.p., 7 Dec. 2010. Web. 20 May 2011.
<http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/maguire/101207>.
Mayne, Judith. “Dracula in the Twilight: Murnau's Nosferatu.” German Film and Literature: Adaptations and Transformations. Ed. Eric Rent-schler. New York: Methuen, 1986, 25-39. Print.
Mccormick, Richard W. “Coming out of the Uniform: Political and Sexual Emancipation in Leontine Sagan’s Mädchen in Uniform (1931).” Weimar Cinema: An Essential Guide to Classic Films of the Era. Ed. Noah Isenberg. New York: Columbia UP, 2009, 271-89. Print.
-----. “From Caligari to Dietrich: Sexual, Social, and Cinematic Discourses in Weimar Film.” Signs 18.3 (1993): 640-68. Print.
Peterson, Vibeke R. Women and Modernity in Weimar Germany: Reality and Representation in Popular Fiction. New York: Berghahan Books, 2001. Print.
Roof, Judith. A lure of Knowledge: Lesbian Sexuality and Theory. New York: Columbia UP, 1991. Print.
Rosso, Vito. The Celluloid Closet. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers Inc, 1987. Print.
Schindler, Stephan. “What Makes a Man a Man: the Construction of Masculinity in F. W. Murnau's The Last Laugh.” Screen 17.1 (1996): 30-40. Print.
Steakley, James D. “Cinema and Censorship in the Weimar Republic: The Case of Anders als die Andern.” Film History 11.2 (1999): 181-203. Print.
In German
Moll, Albert. “Psychohygiene und Strafgesetz” (Psychological Hygiene and Criminal Law). Behandlung Der Homosexualitat: Biochemisch Oder Psychisch? (The Treatment of Homosexuality: Biochemically Or Psychic?). Bonn: A. Marcus & E. Weber, 1921. Print.

Painting
Buonarroti, Michelangelo. The Creation of Adam. 1510. Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. Web. 20 Jul. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelangelo#mediaviewer/File:Creaci%C3%B3n_de_Ad%C3%A1m.jpg>.
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