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作者:林欣儒
作者(外文):Hsin-ru Lin
論文名稱(外文):Commercial Exchange and Social Exchange in Shakespeare's Pericles, Prince of Tyre and The Merchant of Venice
指導教授:林錥鋕
指導教授(外文):Spencer Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學系
學號:101122007
出版年:105
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:商業交換社會交換人類經濟學道德關係
外文關鍵詞:commercial exchangesocial exchangehuman economicsmoralityrelationship
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本論文以探討不同類型之「交換」行為如何影響人際關係為主題,在莎士比亞的劇作《佩瑞克里斯》與《威尼斯商人》中帶入馬修‧薩林和大維‧格雷伯的人類經濟學論點,分析社會交換及商業交換如何在人際互動中影響關係的形成或維持。這兩種交換模式為本論文主要的研究方向,而兩者差異在於執行者的目的與期待之不同。交換行為不僅會創造或塑造人際互動,也隱含了社會道德和規範。
第一章介紹《佩瑞克里斯》的主角佩瑞克里斯在不同場域如何使用「社會交換」以達到個人目的,建立新的關係,而其成果是無法用金錢衡量的。他的經歷將解釋「社會交換」之主要特徵和精神所在。另外,佩瑞克里斯的女兒瑪莉娜的故事,則是呈現了「商業交換」的行為如何將人與物的價值畫上等號。本文藉由兩人的境遇探討與分析「交換」行為的影響和規則。第二章則以《威尼斯商人》中兩大種族社群的互動,更進一步研究「交換」行為在社會中的意義,影響的層面牽涉了個人及族群的利益與認同的議題。最後,結論的部分將強調「交換」行為如何影響人際關係和身分地位,並討論劇本創作的年代至今,人們一直面對的相關經濟行為所衍伸的議題。從劇本角色的互動和理論之交互應證,本論文詮釋的是「社會交換」與「商業交換」在人際與社會關係中所扮演之不可或缺的角色。
This thesis aims to discuss how exchange affects human relationships in Shakespeare’s plays. In view of Marshall Sahlins’ and David Graeber’s essays on human economics, this thesis suggests examining Pericles, Prince of Tyre and The Merchant of Venice with two patterns of exchange. Social exchange and commercial exchange differ in the executer’s purpose and expectation of the outcome. Exchange creates and shapes interpersonal interaction, and it implies morality and social norms as well. From this perspective, one sees that human relations are related to economic ideas.
The first chapter discusses how social exchange is applied to create and maintain relationships in Pericles, Prince of Tyre. The protagonist, Pericles, practices social exchange in different scenes and achieves his goals which cannot be estimated or valued in monetary terms. His experiences show the crucial elements and spirits in social exchange. On the other hand, Marina’s experience exemplifies commercial exchange in the play. The second chapter explains that The Merchant of Venice involves both commercial exchange and social exchange as well. Adding discussion of social distance and comparisons in communities, this chapter demonstrates how exchange affects human relationship in a broader sense. The thesis concludes by suggesting that the two patterns of exchange form a part of social life, that everywhere shape and reshape people’s life.
English Abstract ____________________________________________________________ i
Chinese Abstract ___________________________________________________________ ii
Acknowledgement _________________________________________________________ iii

Introduction ______________________________________________________________ 1

Chapter I: How Exchange Affects Human Relationships in Pericles, Prince of Tyre _____ 12
Social Exchange in Pericles, Prince of Tyre ________________________________ 13
Commercial Exchange in Pericles, Prince of Tyre ____________________________19

Chapter II: How Exchange Affects Human Relationships in The Merchant of Venice_____ 23
Social Exchange in The Merchant of Venice _________________________________24
Commercial Exchange in The Merchant of Venice ____________________________36

Conclusion _______________________________________________________________48

Works Cited ______________________________________________________________52
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