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作者:唐于文
作者(外文):Yu-Wen Tang
論文名稱:灰色地帶: 解讀印尼脈絡中恐怖主義的社會建構
論文名稱(外文):In the Middle of Two: The Social Construction of Terrorism in Indonesia
指導教授:丁乃非
指導教授(外文):Nai-Fei Ding
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學系
學號:106122001
出版年:110
畢業學年度:109
語文別:英文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:印尼批判恐怖主義研究社會建構反恐再現
外文關鍵詞:IndonesiaCritical Terrorism StudySocial ConstructionAnti-TerrorismRepresentation
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本文試圖以批判恐怖主義研究學者Alexander Spencer和Rainer Hülsse所提出「建構主義轉向」(constructivist turn)的研究精神,將恐怖主義視為社會建構出的文化文本並解構其背後意義之網絡。透過解讀恐怖主義在新聞媒體、政策、立法及文化中之再現,論述恐怖主義的符號如何被建構、恐怖份子如何被定義及恐怖如何被塑造,符號在被賦予意義的過程中如何成為權力爭奪的場域。全文以印尼為主要分析的社會文本,由閱讀兩部紀錄片進行概念的比較,延伸討論印尼社會文本在國際反恐建構下複雜的恐怖主義建構脈絡。兩部影片引導出兩個城市(峇里島/ 亞齊)、兩位人物(Noor Huda Ismai/ William Nessen)、及兩個象徵性事件(2002峇里島爆炸案/ 自由亞齊運動),從看似截然不同的角度切入同樣恐怖主義背後複雜的權力、暴力交織的網絡。

從國際架構到國家機器的運作,恐怖主義的建構和對於恐怖的管理是以權力為核心單向建構出來的。反恐論述從簡化的正反二元對立塑造敵人並建構出恐怖主義。在明的一面看得見的建構下,當地社會文化宗教脈絡、國家與人民的矛盾是被忽視的、看不見的恐怖主義。透過印尼獨特的宗教與民族脈絡,本文試圖以印尼的恐怖主義文本重新反思恐怖主義是甚麼以及其建構背後複雜的政治文化網絡、暴力及權力不對等的關係。

在建構恐怖主義符號的過程中,論述的建構操控「集體的主觀」(collective subjectivity)情緒來達到政治的支配,也使得恐怖主義的建構成為國際和國家內部政治角力的場域。筆者認為開啟東南亞國家區域脈絡的研究路徑對全球恐怖主義研究有重要的意義。不僅是東南亞多元的宗教文化背景給予恐怖主義研究更多元的研究方向,補足其相對缺失的批判恐怖主義視角,更反思東南亞脈絡下的恐怖主義如何與全球政治經濟、維安相關政策銜接。恐怖主義的研究應更多發展連結自身和區域、區域和國際、跨科目合作的批判恐怖主義研究,開啟更多元的觀點。
Based on the thinking of “constructivist turn” by Alexander Spencer and Rainer Hülsse in the critical terrorism study, the thesis treats terrorism as a cultural construction and tries to interpret the meaning webs behind its constructed process. Through the representations of terrorism in different forms of culture such as the news media, the governmental policy, the legal framework, and the cultural representations, the thesis gradually elaborates how the terrorism has been constructed, how the terrorists have been defined and how the terror has been made.

With the Islamic cultural and multiple ethnic context, Indonesia is a hybrid text of terrorism, having contradictory values and illustrating the complex meaning webs of power and violence. Through the parallel reading of two documentary films, I explore comparative ideas of two cities (Bali/ Aceh), two characters (Noor Huda Ismai/ William Nessen), and two symbolic events (2002 Bali Bombings/ Free Aceh Movement). From these ideas, I aim to show the inner contradictoriness of terrorism construction and tear down the complexity meaning web of violence and power.

From discussing the U.S. leading War on Terror after 9/11, the Southeast Asia regional anti-terrorism conventions, and the Indonesia domestic anti-terrorism policy and the legal framework, the making of the enemy is built by the binary imagination of good and bad. The anti-terrorism discourse might simplify the context how people understand what is terrorism. The political-driven dynamic and the unequal power relation behind these constructions of terrorism should also be seen as a terrorist act, being a part of terrorism.

Southeast Asia, to be regarded as “the second front” of war against terrorism by the Washington, plays a special role in the global anti-terrorism structure. The multiple contexts of religion and ethnic of the area bring the different cultural construction of terrorism. The local socio-political context must be integrated within the global one and be treated mutually by the field of terrorism studies. Under the globalization, the regional and local reflective point of view on terrorism might provide a novel thinking of the previous terrorism researches. This thesis aims to open up a new possibility to think about terrorism with the critical approach and to inspire more interdisciplinary researches in the field of terrorism study of the area.
Abstract i
中文摘要 iii
Acknowledgements iv
Table of Contents vi

Chapter One: Introduction 1
Chapter Two: Bali, the Paradise Lost and Terrorists 11
2.1 The Bali Bombings and Noor Huda Ismai 12
2.2 The Binary Imagination of Counter Terrorism 19
2.3 Counter Terrorism in Indonesia after 2002 Bali Bombings 25

Chapter Three: Aceh, the Black Road and Freedom Fighters 33
3.1 The Free Aceh Movement and William Nessen 34
3.2 The Contradictory Standpoint about GAM 43
3.3 The Legitimacy of Counter Terrorism in Indonesia 47

Chapter Four: Conclusion 54

Work Cited 62
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