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作者:曾柏竣
作者(外文):Bo-Jiun Tseng
論文名稱(外文):Gender Politics and/in Visual Representations
指導教授:丁乃非
指導教授(外文):Nai-fei Ding
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學系
學號:104122005
出版年:109
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:家庭婦女化殖民化父權制男性情誼男性情慾福爾摩斯性別平等酷兒脆弱主體嬌貴化情感
外文關鍵詞:housewifizationcolonizationpatriarchymale homosocialitymale homosexualitySherlock Holmesgender equalityqueerfragile subjectdelicate emotions
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中文摘要

本論文由三短文集結而成,所以以下摘要也將會分成三個部分分別說明文章內容。本論文中的每一篇文章都將探索一個性別相關的社會機制。並且皆由特定影片分析此社會機制在影片中所呈現出的各項細節。

(一) 學英語如何影響家庭婦女化-針對救救蔡英文的解析
根據Maria Mies的描述,家庭婦女化隨著殖民的過程成為遍布全球的社會機制。但是隨著殖民輸入的不只是家庭婦女化,同時也包含習得英語的慾望。Suhanthie Motha和Angel Lin認為,學習語言的慾望來源複雜,並來自於個體擁有的缺失。對語言學習者,語言只是獲得目標的工具。
救救蔡英文中的莎希就在影片中同時受到了這兩種社會機制的影響。本文章企圖了解家庭婦女化和學英語如何分別對莎希這個傳統印度婦女產生影響,甚至是兩個社會機制的互相影響。
(二) 探索21世紀福爾摩斯的作品中逐漸改變的男性情誼與男性情慾的相關性
對於Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick來說,男性情誼與男性情慾的行為起初不因性慾而被區分。直到父權制利用一夫一妻制度並需要異性戀傾向控制女性,男性情慾才被同性恐懼所區分出並排斥。但是男性情誼與男性情慾之間的相關性從未真正斷絕,只是被父權制和同性恐懼隱藏並混淆。
本文章企圖探索作為男性情誼文學典範之一的夏洛克福爾摩斯小說,到了現代被改編成數部影視作品的過程中,男性情誼與男性情慾的相關性是否發生了變化。而有趣的是,雖然男性情誼與男性情慾的相關性被越來越多人所承認並且公開討論,但是從父權制流傳的同性恐懼卻也持續影響著。只是因為同性恐懼現在已經成了一種政治不正確,所以不再直接表現。只能藉由間接的方式使人民不再注意男性情誼與男性情慾的相關性。
(三) 台灣的性別治理與國家政治正確
中華民國在過去數十年間已經公布並實施了數項有關性別平等的政策。然而這些為了達成性別中立社會,使台灣成為更加自由平等國家的政策卻不斷引發大量爭論。
事實上,台灣立法性別平等法案可能是因為國家內外的壓力。自從國民黨政府遷臺後,台灣就飽受來自對岸的壓力。為了尋求國際社會地位的認可並樹立國家主權,台灣受到西方進步國家的影響,從各方面參考西方國家的發展過程。性別政策就是其中之一。
因此,性別平等已經成為台灣的政治正確了。而台灣的民間組織也藉由塑造脆弱主體和國民的嬌貴化情感,強行推動社會的性別意識進步。隨著兩性平等達到一定成就,酷兒也呼籲保障酷兒人權。部分酷兒也開始將自己塑造成脆弱主體並激發民眾的嬌貴化情感,其中就包含拍攝酷兒紀錄片。
Abstract

This thesis is composed of three essays. The following abstract will also be divided into three parts to explain the content of each article. Each essay in the thesis explores a gender-related social mechanism. And all the details of each social mechanism is presented in the visualized representation analyzed.
(一) How Learning English Affects Housewifization – A Reading of English Vinglish
According to Maria Mies, the housewifization became a global social mechanism through the process of colonization. Moreover, housewifization is not the only thing implemented along with colonization. There is also the desire of learning English. Suhanthie Motha and Angel Lin believe that the desire of learning English comes from complex sources and psychoanalytic lack of individuals. For the learners, language is only a tool rather than a desired goal.
Shashi in English Vinglish is simultaneously affected by these two social mechanisms. This essay attempts to explore how the housewifization and learning English influence this traditional Indian housewife. Furthermore, how do these social mechanism interact with each other?
(二) Post-2000 Sherlock Holmes in a Changing Homosociality and Homosexuality Continuum
For Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, the behaviors of male homosociality and homosexuality were not distinguished at first. It was not divided until patriarchy uses monogamy system and needs heterosexual orientation to control women. That is when male homosexuality was shaped and distinguished by homophobia. However, the continuum between male homosociality and male homosexuality has never extinguished, but is hidden by patriarchy and homophobia.
This essay aims to explore whether the literature of Sherlock Holmes, one of the classics of male homosociality canon, has changed in the process of being adapted into several visualized representation in the modern society. Although the continuum between male homosociality and male homosexuality is recognized and discussed publicly by more and more people, the homophobia which stems from patriarchy still exist and influence the continuum. Owing to homophobia has become a political incorrectness, it does not directly express itself. Now homophobia learns to take indirect strategy to distract people from focusing on the continuum between male homosociality and male homosexuality.
(三) Gender Governance and National Political Correctness in Taiwan
The Republic of China (ROC) has announced and implemented several policies on gender equality in the past decades. However, these legislations which aim for achieving a gender-neutral society and male Taiwan a free and equal country continue to arouse controversies.
In fact, Taiwan’s policies of gender-neutral may be owing to pressure from within and outside the country. Since the government moved to Taiwan, this country has been under pressure from the People’s Republic of China (PRC). In order to acquire the recognition of international social status and establish national sovereignty, Taiwan is influenced by the advanced western countries and refers to the developed process of western countries from various aspects. Gender governance is one of them.
Therefore, gender equality has become an issue of political correctness in Taiwan. And Taiwan’s non-government organizations (NGOs) have shaped fragile subjects and delicate emotions of citizens to promote progressive gender ideologies. With the achievement of gender equality, queers also promote the protection of queer human rights. Some queers have addressed themselves as fragile subjects and arouse the delicate emotions of citizens. How this transpires is examined in one segment of a new series of queer documentaries.
Table of Contents

Abstract …………………………………………………………………………… i

Chinese Abstract ……………………………………………………………………iv

Acknowledgment ………………………………………………………………… vi

How Learning English Affects Housewifization – A Reading of English Vinglish …1

Work Cited …………………………………………………………………………15

Post-2000 Sherlock Holmes in a Changing Homosociality and Homosexuality Continuum …………………………………………………………………………16

Work Cited …………………………………………………………………………29

Gender Governance and National Political Correctness in Taiwan ……………… 30

Work Cited …………………………………………………………………………54


Work Cited

Mies, Maria. “Colonization and Housewifization”. Patriarchy and capital accumulation on a world scale: women in the international division of labour. Palgrave Macmillan, 1998. Print.
Motha, Suhanthie. Lin, Angel. "Non-coercive Rearrangements": Theorizing Desire in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 2 (JUNE 2014), pp. 331-359. Print.
English Vinglish. Dir. Gauri Shinde. Perf. Sridevi. Hope Productions, 2012. Film.


Doyle, Arthur Conan. The Complete Sherlock Holmes: All 4 Novels and 56 Short Stories. Bantam Classics, 1995. Print.
Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. Columbia University Press, 1993. Print.
Tribe, Steve, Sherlock: Chronicles, Business weekly, 2015. Print.
Elementary. Dir. Robert Doherty. Perf. Jonny Lee Miller. Lucy Liu. CBS, 2012. Film.
Miss Sherlock. Dir. Junichi Mori. Perf. Yuko Takeuchi. Shihori Kanjiya. HBO Asia, 2018. Film.
Sherlock. Dir. Mark Gatiss. Steven Moffat. Perf. Benedict Cumberbatch. Martin Freman. BBC, 2010. Film.
Sherlock Holmes. Dir. Guy Ritchie. Perf. Rober Downey Jr. Jude Law. Silver Pictures, 2009. Film.
Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows. Dir. Guy Ritchie. Perf. Rober Downey Jr. Jude Law. Silver Pictures, 2011. Film.


Ho, Josephine. Gender Governance in Taiwan. The Center for the Study of Sexuality, 2017. Print.
Liu, Petrus. Queer Human Rights in and against China: Marxism and the Figuration of the Human. Social Text 110, 30(1): 71-89. 1 Mar. 2012. Print.
Rubin, Gayle. The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex. Monthly Review Press, 1975. Print.
Rubin, Gayle. “Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality”. Culture, Society and Sexuality: A Reader. Psychology Press, 1999. Print.
Wei, Mei-Chuan. A Study of Gender Mainstreaming in Mainland China. Prospect & Exploration, 6(9): 60-72. Sep. 2008. Print.
Queer Taiwan: Episode 1 – Back to the Start. Dir. Liling Gan. Perf. Leo. Diana. GagaOOLala, 2019. Film.
“Married on the Road will have Its Full Anniversary Ministry of the Interior: 4021 Pairs Completed Registration.” 同婚上路將滿周年 內政部: 4021對完成登記. Liberty Times 自由時報, 23 May 2020. Web. 6 Jun. 2020. <https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/breakingnews/3174805>
“Ye Yong-Zhi has Passed Away for 19 Years. Master: Let Your Children be Proud of Who They Are.” 葉永鋕逝世今滿19年 教長: 要讓孩子為自己的樣子驕傲. United Daily News 聯合報, 20 Apr. 2019. Web. 10 Jun. 2020. < https://udn.com/news/story/6885/3766962 >
Gallix, Andrew. “In theory: Mimetic desire.” The Guardian. 8 Feb. 2010. Web. 4 May 2020. < https://www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2010/feb/08/theory-mimetic-desire >
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